English Daily Workout: Present Perfect: Adding 'ed' to Verbs (Part 2)

Present Perfect: Adding 'ed' to Verbs (Part 2)

Spelling rules for adding ed to form the past participle

Verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
The rules concerning the doubling of final consonants which apply when adding the ending ing to form the present participle also apply when adding the ending ed to form the past participle.

Thus, when a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant other than wx or y immediately preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ed is added to form the past participle. In the following examples, the consonants which have been doubled are underlined. For example:


Infinitive                                               Past Participle
  to rub                                               rubbed
  to trim                                               trimmed
  to plan                                               planned
  to stop                                               stopped

When a verb of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant other than wx or y immediately preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled before the ending ed only when the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress. In the following examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:


Infinitive                                                 Past Participle
  to control  controlled
  to infer  inferred
  to occur  occurred
  to permit  permitted
  to fasten  fastened
  to order  ordered
  to focus  focused
  to limit  limited

In the first four examples, the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress, and the final consonant is doubled before ed is added. In the last four examples, the first syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress, and the final consonant is not doubled before ed is added.

The final consonants wx and y are never doubled when the ending ed is added. For example:


Infinitive                                             Past Participle
  to follow  followed
  to box  boxed
  to portray  portrayed

It should also be noted that final consonants immediately preceded by two vowels are not doubled when the ending ed is added. For example:


Infinitive                                                Past Participle
  to greet                                               greeted
  to rain                                               rained
  to soak                                              soaked
  to treat                                                                   treated

Exercise:
Paying attention to the spelling of the past participles, fill in the blanks using the Present Perfect tense of the regular verbs shown in brackets. 

For example: 
He __________ the child. (to scare) He has scared the child.
They ____________ the hillside. (to scar) They have scarred the hillside.




Answers:
1. has apologized     2. have stirred     3. has stopped     4. have explained     5. have planned     6. have wiped     7. have pinned     8. has joined     9. have spotted     10. has rained     11. have whipped   12. has arranged