English Daily Workout: Use and Formation of the Present Perfect: Lesson & Exercises

Use and Formation of the Present Perfect: Lesson & Exercises

1. Use of the present perfect
 

The English Present Perfect tense is used to express actions which have already been completed, or perfected, at the time of speaking or writing. In the examples given below, the verbs in the Present Perfect tense are underlined.
e.g. I have done the work.
She has answered half the questions.

In the first example, the use of the Present Perfect tense emphasizes the fact that, at the time of speaking or writing, the work has already been completed. In the second example, the use of the Present Perfect indicates that, at the time of speaking or writing, half the questions have been answered.






2. Formation of the present perfect: Regular verbs

The Present Perfect tense of any English verb is formed from the Simple Present of the auxiliary to have, followed by what is generally referred to as the past participle of the verb.

Most English verbs form the past participle in a regular, predictable manner. These verbs are commonly referred to as regular verbs.

The past participle of a regular English verb is formed by adding the ending ed to the bare infinitive of the verb. For instance, the past participle of the verb to work is worked.

Thus, the Present Perfect tense of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:

I have worked
you have worked
he has worked
she has worked
it has worked
we have worked
they have worked

Exercise 1
Using the Present Perfect tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      We ____________ the contest. (to enter)
      We have entered the contest.

      He ____________ the work. (to finish)
      He has finished the work.


The following contractions are often used in spoken English:

Without ContractionsWith Contractions
  I have                                                                                 I've
  you have  you've
  he has  he's
  she has  she's
  it has  it's
  we have  we've
  they have  they've

It should be noted that the contractions for he has, she has and it has are the same as the contractions for he is, she is and it is.

Exercise 2
Rewrite the following sentences, using the contracted form of the auxiliary to have. For example:
      It has started.
      It's started.

      We have telephoned.
      We've telephoned.