English Daily Workout: How to Form Past Participles: Rules for Adding "ed" to Verbs

How to Form Past Participles: Rules for Adding "ed" to Verbs

3. Spelling rules for adding ed to form the past participle
 

Some regular verbs change their spelling when the ending ed is added to form the past participle.

a. Verbs ending in a silent e
When a regular verb ends in a silent e, only the letter d must be added in order to form the past participle. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to close                                                                                 closed
  to move  moved
  to please  pleased
  to receive  received

b. Verbs ending in y
When a regular verb ends in y immediately preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to study                                                              studied
  to rely  relied
  to carry  carried

However, when a regular verb ends in y immediately preceded by a vowel, the y is not changed before the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to play                                                            played
  to convey  conveyed
  to enjoy  enjoyed

Exercise 3
Paying attention to the spelling of the past participles, fill in the blanks using the Present Perfect tense of the regular verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      She _________ hard. (to try)
      She has tried hard.

      He ___________ his friend. (to annoy)
      He has annoyed his friend.

c. Verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel

The rules concerning the doubling of final consonants which apply when adding the ending ing to form the present participle also apply when adding the ending ed to form the past participle.

Thus, when a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y immediately preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ed is added to form the past participle. In the following examples, the consonants which have been doubled are underlined. For example:


InfinitivePast Participle
  to rub                                                                        rubbed
  to trim  trimmed
  to plan  planned
  to stop  stopped

When a verb of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y immediately preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled before the ending ed only when the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress. In the following examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to control                        
   controlled
  to infer  inferred
  to occur  occurred
  to permit  permitted
  to fasten                                                            fastened
  to order  ordered
  to focus  focused
  to limit  limited

In the first four examples, the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress, and the final consonant is doubled before ed is added. In the last four examples, the first syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress, and the final consonant is not doubled before ed is added.

The final consonants w, x and y are never doubled when the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to follow                                                              followed
  to box  boxed
  to portray  portrayed

It should also be noted that final consonants immediately preceded by two vowels are not doubled when the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to greet                                                                  greeted
  to rain  rained
  to soak  soaked
  to treat  treated

Exercise 4
Paying attention to the spelling of the past participles, fill in the blanks using the Present Perfect tense of the regular verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      He __________ the child. (to scare)
      He has scared the child.

      They ____________ the hillside. (to scar)
      They have scarred the hillside.