English Daily Workout: 01/01/2011 - 02/01/2011

Present Perfect: Irregular Verbs

5. Formation of the present perfect: Irregular verbs
 

In addition to regular English verbs, there are many irregular English verbs, which do not form the past participle with the ending ed. The English irregular verbs are related to the strong verbs of the German language. The following are examples of irregular English verbs. For example:

Bare InfinitivePast Participle
  begin                                                                                          begun
  find  found
  go  gone
  let  let
  take  taken

The past participles of irregular English verbs are formed in an unpredictable manner, and must be memorized. A table of common English irregular verbs is provided.

Except for the irregularity of the past participle, the formation of the Present Perfect tense is the same for an irregular verb as for a regular verb. In both cases, the Simple Present of the auxiliary to have is followed by the past participle of the verb.

For instance, the irregular verb to take has the past participle taken. Thus, the Present Perfect of the irregular verb to take is conjugated as follows:

 I have taken
 you have taken
 he has taken
 she has taken
 it has taken
 we have taken
 they have taken

Referring to the table of irregular verbs if necessary, fill in the blanks with the Present Perfect tense of the irregular verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      They _________ tall. (to grow)
      They have grown tall.

      He __________ it. (to choose)
      He has chosen it.


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Common English Irregular Verbs

Bare InfinitiveSimple PastPast Participle
 be                                                        was/were                                                    been
 bear bore born
 beat beat beaten
 become became become
 begin began begun
 bend bent bent
 bind bound bound
 bite bit bitten
 bleed bled bled
 blow blew blown
 break broke broken
 breed bred bred
 bring brought brought
 build built built
 burst burst burst
 buy bought bought
 cast cast cast
 catch caught caught
 choose chose chosen
 cling clung clung
 come came come
 cost cost cost
 creep crept crept
 cut cut cut
 deal dealt dealt
 dig dug dug
 do did done
 draw drew drawn
 drink drank drunk
 drive drove driven
 eat ate eaten
 fall fell fallen
 feed fed fed
 feel felt felt
 fight fought fought
 find found found
 flee fled fled
 fling flung flung
 fly flew flown
 forbid forbade forbidden
 forecast forecast forecast
 forget forgot forgotten
 forgive forgave forgiven
 forsake forsook forsaken
 freeze froze frozen
 get got got
 give gave given
 go went gone
 grind ground ground
 grow grew grown
 hang hung hung
 have had had
 hear heard heard
 hide hid hidden
 hit hit hit
 hold held held
 hurt hurt hurt
 keep kept kept
 kneel knelt knelt
 know knew known
 lay laid laid
 lead led led
 leave left left
 lend lent lent
 let let let
 lie lay lain
 lose lost lost
 make made made
 mean meant meant
 meet met met
 mistake mistook mistaken
 partake partook partaken
 pay paid paid
 put put put
 read read read
 rid rid rid
 ride rode ridden
 ring rang rung
 rise rose risen
 run ran run
 say said said
 see saw seen
 seek sought sought
 sell sold sold
 send sent sent
 set set set
 shake shook shaken
 shed shed shed
 shine shone shone
 shoe shod shod
 shoot shot shot
 show showed shown
 shrink shrank or shrunk shrunk
 shut shut shut
 sing sang sung
 sink sank sunk
 sit sat sat
 sleep slept slept
 slide slid slid
 sling slung slung
 slink slunk slunk
 slit slit slit
 speak spoke spoken
 speed sped sped
 spend spent spent
 spin span or spun spun
 spit spit or spat spat
 split split split
 spread spread spread
 spring sprang sprung
 stand stood stood
 steal stole stolen
 stick stuck stuck
 sting stung stung
 stink stank stunk
 stride strode strode
 strike struck struck
 string strung strung
 strive strove striven
 swear swore sworn
 sweep swept swept
 swim swam swum
 take took taken
 teach taught taught
 tear tore torn
 tell told told
 think thought thought
 thrive throve thriven
 throw threw thrown
 thrust thrust thrust
 tread trod trodden
 understand understood understood
 wake woke woken
 wear wore worn
 weave wove woven
 weep wept wept
 win won won
 wind wound wound
 wring wrung wrung
 write wrote written
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Pronunciation of "ED" Endings in Verbs

4. Pronunciation of the ED ending

The ending ed is usually not pronounced as a separate syllable. For instance, in each of the following examples, both the bare infinitive and the past participle consist of one syllable. For example:

Bare InfinitivePast Participle
  puff                                                                                       puffed
  work  worked
  miss  missed
  watch  watched

However, when the ending ed is added to verbs which end in d or t, the ed ending of the past participle is pronounced as a separate syllable. The reason for this is that the sounds of d and t are so similar to the sound of the ed ending, that the ending must be pronounced as a separate syllable in order to be heard clearly.

In each of the following examples, the bare infinitive consists of one syllable; whereas the past participle consists of two syllables. For example:

Bare InfinitivePast Participle
  add                                                                                              added
  land  landed
  hunt  hunted
  wait  waited

Similarly, when d is added to verbs ending in a silent e preceded by d or t, the final ed of the past participle is pronounced as a separate syllable. In each of the following examples, the bare infinitive consists of one syllable; whereas the past participle consists of two syllables. For example:

Bare InfinitivePast Participle
  fade                                                                                                     faded
  glide  glided
  cite  cited
  note  noted

Exercise 5
Keeping in mind that the ending ed forms a separate syllable only when it follows the letter d or t, indicate the number of syllables in each of the following past participles. Read each of the the past participles aloud. For example:
      __ pained
      1 pained

      __ painted
      2 painted

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How to Form Past Participles: Rules for Adding "ed" to Verbs

3. Spelling rules for adding ed to form the past participle
 

Some regular verbs change their spelling when the ending ed is added to form the past participle.

a. Verbs ending in a silent e
When a regular verb ends in a silent e, only the letter d must be added in order to form the past participle. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to close                                                                                 closed
  to move  moved
  to please  pleased
  to receive  received

b. Verbs ending in y
When a regular verb ends in y immediately preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to study                                                              studied
  to rely  relied
  to carry  carried

However, when a regular verb ends in y immediately preceded by a vowel, the y is not changed before the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to play                                                            played
  to convey  conveyed
  to enjoy  enjoyed

Exercise 3
Paying attention to the spelling of the past participles, fill in the blanks using the Present Perfect tense of the regular verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      She _________ hard. (to try)
      She has tried hard.

      He ___________ his friend. (to annoy)
      He has annoyed his friend.

c. Verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel

The rules concerning the doubling of final consonants which apply when adding the ending ing to form the present participle also apply when adding the ending ed to form the past participle.

Thus, when a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y immediately preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ed is added to form the past participle. In the following examples, the consonants which have been doubled are underlined. For example:


InfinitivePast Participle
  to rub                                                                        rubbed
  to trim  trimmed
  to plan  planned
  to stop  stopped

When a verb of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y immediately preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled before the ending ed only when the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress. In the following examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to control                        
   controlled
  to infer  inferred
  to occur  occurred
  to permit  permitted
  to fasten                                                            fastened
  to order  ordered
  to focus  focused
  to limit  limited

In the first four examples, the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress, and the final consonant is doubled before ed is added. In the last four examples, the first syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress, and the final consonant is not doubled before ed is added.

The final consonants w, x and y are never doubled when the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to follow                                                              followed
  to box  boxed
  to portray  portrayed

It should also be noted that final consonants immediately preceded by two vowels are not doubled when the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
  to greet                                                                  greeted
  to rain  rained
  to soak  soaked
  to treat  treated

Exercise 4
Paying attention to the spelling of the past participles, fill in the blanks using the Present Perfect tense of the regular verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      He __________ the child. (to scare)
      He has scared the child.

      They ____________ the hillside. (to scar)
      They have scarred the hillside.


Continue Reading "How to Form Past Participles: Rules for Adding "ed" to Verbs"

Use and Formation of the Present Perfect: Lesson & Exercises

1. Use of the present perfect
 

The English Present Perfect tense is used to express actions which have already been completed, or perfected, at the time of speaking or writing. In the examples given below, the verbs in the Present Perfect tense are underlined.
e.g. I have done the work.
She has answered half the questions.

In the first example, the use of the Present Perfect tense emphasizes the fact that, at the time of speaking or writing, the work has already been completed. In the second example, the use of the Present Perfect indicates that, at the time of speaking or writing, half the questions have been answered.






2. Formation of the present perfect: Regular verbs

The Present Perfect tense of any English verb is formed from the Simple Present of the auxiliary to have, followed by what is generally referred to as the past participle of the verb.

Most English verbs form the past participle in a regular, predictable manner. These verbs are commonly referred to as regular verbs.

The past participle of a regular English verb is formed by adding the ending ed to the bare infinitive of the verb. For instance, the past participle of the verb to work is worked.

Thus, the Present Perfect tense of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:

I have worked
you have worked
he has worked
she has worked
it has worked
we have worked
they have worked

Exercise 1
Using the Present Perfect tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      We ____________ the contest. (to enter)
      We have entered the contest.

      He ____________ the work. (to finish)
      He has finished the work.


The following contractions are often used in spoken English:

Without ContractionsWith Contractions
  I have                                                                                 I've
  you have  you've
  he has  he's
  she has  she's
  it has  it's
  we have  we've
  they have  they've

It should be noted that the contractions for he has, she has and it has are the same as the contractions for he is, she is and it is.

Exercise 2
Rewrite the following sentences, using the contracted form of the auxiliary to have. For example:
      It has started.
      It's started.

      We have telephoned.
      We've telephoned.



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Present Simple and Present Continuous


 
5. Comparison of the uses of the simple present and present continuous


As pointed out in Chapter 1, the Simple Present tense may be used for stating general truths, and for referring to actions which occur at regular intervals. In the following examples, the verbs in the Simple Present tense are underlined.
e.g. Nova Scotia is a Canadian province. Geese fly south every winter.

In contrast, the Present Continuous tense is usually used to refer to ongoing actions happening at the time of speaking or writing. In the following examples, the verbs in the Present Continuous tense are underlined.

e.g. Right now, I am visiting the province of Nova Scotia.
      At the moment, a flock of geese is flying overhead.

9. For each of the following sentences, determine whether the Simple Present tense or the Present Continuous tense is more appropriate, and fill in the blank with the correct form of the verb given in brackets.

For example:
      Right now, he ________ ridiculous. (to be)
      Right now, he is being ridiculous.

      She ______ to Sydney every weekend. (to drive)
      She drives to Sydney every weekend.



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Present Continuous: Tag Questions

d. Tag questions
Tag questions are also formed using the auxiliary. In the following examples, the tag questions are underlined. In spoken English, aren't I? is often used as a tag question. For example:


Affirmative StatementAffirmative Statement with Tag Question
  I am working.                                               I am working, am I not?
  You are working.  You are working, aren't you?
  He is working.  He is working, isn't he?
  She is working.  She is working, isn't she?
  It is working.  It is working, isn't it?
  We are working.  We are working, aren't we?
  They are working.  They are working, aren't they?

8. Add negative tag questions to the affirmative statements given in Exercise 5. Except when the subject of the verb is I, use contractions for the tag questions. For example:
      It is snowing.
      It is snowing, isn't it?

      They are being cautious.
      They are being cautious, aren't they?



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Present Continuous: Questions & Negative Statements











Chapter 3: The Present Continuous
 
 
3.4. Questions and negative statements

 
a. Questions
In the Present Continuous, the verb to be acts as an auxiliary. As is the case with other English tenses, it is the auxiliary which is used to form questions and negative statements.

To form a question in the Present Continuous tense, the auxiliary is placed before the subject. For example:

Affirmative StatementQuestion
  I am working.                                                                                         Am I working?
  You are working.  Are you working?
  He is working.  Is he working?
  She is working.  Is she working?
  It is working.  Is it working?
  We are working.  Are we working?
  They are working.  Are they working?

5. Change the following affirmative statements into questions. For example:
      It is snowing.
      Is it snowing?

      They are being cautious.
      Are they being cautious?


b. Negative statements
To form a negative statement, the word not is added after the auxiliary. For example:

Affirmative StatementNegative Statement
  I am working.                                              I am not working.
  You are working.  You are not working.
  He is working.  He is not working.
  She is working.  She is not working.
  It is working.  It is not working.
  We are working.  We are not working.
  They are working.  They are not working.


6. Change the affirmative statements given in Exercise 5 into negative statements. For example:
      It is snowing.
      It is not snowing.

      They are being cautious.
      They are not being cautious.


c. Negative questions
To form a negative question, the auxiliary is placed before the subject, and the word not is placed after the subject. However, when contractions are used, the contracted form of not follows immediately after the auxiliary. Although there is no universally accepted contraction for am not, the expression aren't I? is often used in spoken English. For example:

Without ContractionsWith Contractions
  Am I not working?                                                                [Aren't I working?] - used in speaking
  Are you not working?  Aren't you working?
  Is he not working?  Isn't he working?
  Is she not working?  Isn't she working?
  Is it not working?  Isn't it working?
  Are we not working?  Aren't we working?
  Are they not working?  Aren't they working?

7. Change the affirmative statements given in Exercise 5 into negative questions. Except when the subject of the verb is I, write both the form without contractions and the form with contractions. For example:
      It is snowing.
      Is it not snowing?
      Isn't it snowing?

      They are being cautious.
      Are they not being cautious?
      Aren't they being cautious?

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Use and Formation of the Present Continuous: Lesson and Exercise











The present continuous
1. Uses of the present continuous
    
2. Formation of the present continuous
   


 
1. Uses of the present continuous
 

In English, the Present Continuous tense is usually used to express continuing, ongoing actions which are taking place at the moment of speaking or writing. In the examples given below, the verbs in the Present Continuous tense are underlined.

e.g. Right now I am cooking supper.
      At the moment the plane is flying over the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

The Present Continuous tense is often used in conversation.
e.g. "What are you doing?"
      "I am working on my English assignment."

Occasionally, the Present Continuous tense is used to refer to a future event.
e.g. We are leaving tomorrow.




2. Formation of the present continuous
 

The Present Continuous tense of any verb is formed from the Simple Present of the auxiliary to be, followed by what is generally referred to as the present participle of the verb.

The present participle of a verb is formed by adding ing to the bare infinitive. For instance, the present participle of the verb to work is working.

Thus, the Present Continuous tense of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:




 I am working
 you are working
 he is working
 she is working
 it is working
 we are working
 they are working


 Exercise 1
1. Using the Present Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      He _________ hard. (to work)
      He is working hard.

      We ____________ anxious. (to feel)
      We are feeling anxious.

Continue Reading "Use and Formation of the Present Continuous: Lesson and Exercise"

Formation of Present Participle: Spelling rules of Verbs (Lesson & Exercises)











Present Continuous
3. Spelling rules for the formation of the present participle
 
Some verbs change their spelling when the ending ing is added to form the present participle.

a. Verbs ending in a silent e

When a verb ends in a silent e, the silent e is dropped before the ending ing is added. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to close                                                                              closing
  to dine  dining
  to leave  leaving
  to move  moving

However, when a verb ends in an e which is not silent, the final e is not dropped before the ending ing is added. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to be                                                                                    being
  to see  seeing

b. Verbs ending in ie

When a verb ends in ie, the ie is changed to y before the ending ing is added. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to die                                                                                  dying
  to lie  lying

When a verb ends in y, no change is made before the ending is added. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to fly                                                                                flying
  to play  playing

Exercise 2

Using the Present Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      They _____________ the lemons. (to squeeze)
      They are squeezing the lemons.

      It ________ on the sidewalk. (to lie)
      It is lying on the sidewalk.

      I ___________ the groceries. (to carry)
      I am carrying the groceries.

c. One-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel

Except in the case of the final consonants w, x and y, when a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ing is added. The reason for this is to reflect the fact that the pronunciation of the single vowel does not change when the ending ing is added.

English vowels have a variety of pronunciations. For instance, each English vowel has two contrasting pronunciations, which are sometimes referred to as short and long. Vowels which are followed by two consonants, and vowels which are followed by a single consonant at the end of a word, are generally pronounced short. In contrast, vowels which are followed by a single consonant followed by another vowel are generally pronounced long.

In the table below, the underlined vowels in the left-hand column are pronounced short; whereas the underlined vowels in the right-hand column are pronounced long. For example:

Short VowelsLong Vowels
  fat                                                                                                      fate
  tapping  taping
  let  delete
  win  wine
  filling  filing
  not  note
  hopping  hoping
  flutter  flute

Thus, in the case of most one-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the vowel is pronounced short. In order to reflect the fact that the vowel is also pronounced short in the corresponding present participle, except in the case of w, x and y, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ing is added.

In the following examples, the consonants which have been doubled are
underlined. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to nod                                                                                nodding
  to dig  digging
  to run  running
  to clap  clapping
  to set  setting

When a verb ends in w, x or y preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending is added. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to draw                                                                                      drawing
  to fix  fixing
  to say  saying

It should also be noted that when a verb ends in a single consonant preceded by two vowels, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending is added. The reason for this is that two vowels together are generally pronounced long. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to rain                                                                                         raining
  to read  reading
  to meet  meeting
  to soak  soaking

Exercise 3

3. Using the Present Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      We ___________ to come. (to plan)
      We are planning to come.

      They _________ the lawn. (to mow)
      They are mowing the lawn.

      It __________. (to rain)
      It is raining.




d. Verbs of more than one syllable which end in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
When a verb of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled to form the present participle only when the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress.

For instance, in the following examples, the last syllables of the verbs have the heaviest stress, and the final consonants are doubled to form the present participles. In these examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to expel                                          
  expelling
  to begin  beginning
  to occur  occurring
  to omit  omitting

When a verb of more than one syllable ends in w, x or y, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending ing is added. In the following examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to allow                                   
  allowing
  to affix  affixing
  to convey  conveying

When the last syllable of a verb is not pronounced with the heaviest stress, the final consonant is usually not doubled to form the present participle. For instance, in the following examples, the last syllables of the verbs do not have the heaviest stress, and the final consonants are not doubled to form the present participles. In these examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
  to listen                                 listening
  to order  ordering
  to focus  focusing
  to limit  limiting

If necessary, a dictionary can be consulted to determine which syllable of a verb has the heaviest stress. Many dictionaries use symbols such as apostrophes to indicate which syllables are pronounced with the heaviest stress.

Exercise 4

4. Each of the following sentences is preceded by a bare infinitive, the most heavily stressed syllable of which is underlined. Paying attention to whether or not the final consonant should be doubled before ing is added, fill in the blanks with the present participles corresponding to the bare infinitives. Use the American spelling for verbs ending in

l. For example:
      whisper: They are __________ to their friends.
      They are whispering to their friends.

      refer: I was _________ to your letter.
      I was referring to your letter.

1. open  2. display    3. submit  4. limit  5. permit
6. sharpen  7. confer 8. focus   9. repel   10. shovel
11. destroy 12. dispel   13. squander 14. prefer  15. color
16. unravel  17. propel  18. flower 19. infer  20. listen




It should be noted that British and American spelling rules differ for verbs which end in a single l preceded by a single vowel. In British spelling, the l is always doubled before the endings ing and ed
are added. However, in American spelling, verbs ending with a single l follow the same rule as other verbs; the l is doubled only when the last syllable has the heaviest stress. In the following examples, the syllables with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:


Infinitive                                      Present Participle
American SpellingBritish Spelling
 to signal                                 signaling  signalling
 to travel  traveling  travelling
 to compel  compelling  compelling
 to propel  propelling  propelling

From these examples it can be seen that the American and British spellings for verbs ending in a single l differ only when the last syllable does not have the heaviest stress.
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