English Daily Workout: Lay and Lie, Raise and Rise, Set and Sit

Lay and Lie, Raise and Rise, Set and Sit

Grammar Lesson and Exercises: 
2. Lay and lie, raise and rise and set and sit
         a. To lay and to lie
         b. To raise and to rise
         c. To set and to sit




 
2. Lay and Lie, Raise and Rise, and Set and Sit
 

Verbs which take an object are usually called transitive verbs. Verbs which do not take an object are usually called intransitive verbs.

Many English verbs can be used either intransitively or transitively. For instance, in the sentence Most birds can fly, the verb to fly is intransitive, since it is used without an object. But in the sentence This pilot will fly the plane, the verb to fly is transitive, since it takes the object plane.

However, some English verbs can be used only intransitively. A few pairs of verbs should be noted. The two verbs of each pair have similar meanings, but one of the verbs can take an object, and the other cannot. In the following table, the verbs labeled intransitive are those which cannot take an object.

  InfinitiveSimple PastPast Participle
  Transitive:                 to lay                                  laid                                  laid
  Intransitive:  to lie  lay  lain
 
  Transitive:  to raise  raised  raised
  Intransitive:  to rise  rose  risen
 
  Transitive:  to set  set  set
  Intransitive:  to sit  sat  sat


Particular care must be taken not to confuse the verbs to lay and to lie, since, as shown above, the Simple Past of the verb to lie has the same form as the bare infinitive of the verb to lay.

a. To Lay and To Lie

To lay is a transitive verb, which can take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to lay. The verbs are underlined, and the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type.
e.g. I am laying the table.
      He laid a bet on the white horse.
      The hen has laid an egg.

To lie is an intransitive verb, which cannot take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to lie.
e.g. She is lying on the sofa.
      We lay on the beach in the sun.
      He has lain in bed for a week.

In these examples, it might appear that the words sofa, beach, and bed act as objects of the verb to lie. However, this is not the case.

Not only verbs, but also prepositions have the ability to take objects. A few commonly used English prepositions are at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to and with. Prepositions will be discussed in detail in a later chapter.

In the examples above, sofa, and beach are objects of the preposition on; and bed is the object of the preposition in.

Exercise 2
2. In the following sentences, the direct objects of the verbs are printed in bold type. In addition, each sentence contains an adverb or adverb phrase indicating time. Depending upon whether or not there is a direct object, complete each sentence using either to lay or to lie, as appropriate. Use the Present Continuous tense if the action takes place in the present, and use the Simple Past tense if the action took place in the past. For example:
      They __________ the bricks now.
      They are laying the bricks now.

      I _______ the money on the counter last night.
      I laid the money on the counter last night.

      Right now, the dogs _________ in the middle of the road.
      Right now, the dogs are lying in the middle of the road.

      Yesterday, he ___ in bed until ten o'clock.
      Yesterday, he lay in bed until ten o'clock.



b. To Raise and To Rise

To raise is a transitive verb, which can take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to raise. The verbs are underlined, and the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type.
e.g. She is raising poodles.
      He raised the window.
      They have raised a crop of wheat.

To rise is an intransitive verb, which cannot take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to rise.
e.g. The moon is rising in the east.
      They rose to the occasion.
      The temperature has risen by five degrees.

In these sentences, the verbs have no objects. The words east, occasion and degrees are the objects of the prepositions in, to and by.

Exercise 3
3. In the following sentences, the direct objects of the verbs are printed in bold type. In addition, each sentence contains an adverb or adverb phrase indicating time. Depending upon whether or not there is a direct object, complete each sentence using either to raise or to rise, as appropriate. Use the Present Continuous tense if the action takes place in the present; and use the Simple Past tense if the action took place in the past. For example:
      Right now, he __________ sheep.
      Right now, he is raising sheep.

      Last night he ______ their expectations.
      Last night he raised their expectations.

      The price of housing _________ now.
      The price of housing is rising now.

      Last year she ______ at six o'clock every morning.
      Last year she rose at six o'clock every morning.
b. To Set and To Sit


To set is a transitive verb, which can take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to set. The verbs are underlined, and the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type.
e.g. They are setting a record.
      We set the jars on a shelf.
      Have you set the date for your trip?

To sit is an intransitive verb, which cannot take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to sit.
e.g. They are sitting by the front steps.
      I sat at my desk for an hour.
      You have sat on the couch all afternoon.

In these sentences, the verbs have no objects. The words steps, desk, and couch are the objects of the prepositions by, at and on.

Exercise 4
4. In the following sentences, the direct objects of the verbs are printed in bold type. In addition, each sentence contains an adverb or adverb phrase indicating time. Depending upon whether or not there is a direct object, complete each sentence using either to set or to sit, as appropriate. Use the Present Continuous tense if the action takes place in the present; and use the Simple Past tense if the action took place in the past. For example:
      Now they ___________ the table.
      Now they are setting the table.

      Last night we ___ our alarm clock for six o'clock.
      Last night we set our alarm clock for six o'clock.

      At the moment, the cat __________ on top of the car.
      At the moment, the cat is sitting on top of the car.

      Yesterday he ___ at his desk all afternoon.
      Yesterday he sat at his desk all afternoon.


Exercise 5: Revision

5. In the following sentences, the direct objects of the verbs are printed in bold type. Paying attention to whether or not there is a direct object, for each sentence, choose the correct verb from the pair given in brackets, and complete the sentence using the Present Perfect tense of the verb. For example:
      I ________ two blankets on the bed. (to lay, to lie)
      I have laid two blankets on the bed.

      He ________ down for half an hour. (to lay, to lie)
      He has lain down for half an hour.

      They ___________ the flag. (to raise, to rise)
      They have raised the flag.

      Our opinion of them _________. (to raise, to rise)
      Our opinion of them has risen.

      We ________ the electric train in motion. (to set, to sit)
      We have set the electric train in motion.

      She ___ just ___ down. (to set, to sit)
      She has just sat down.



Chapter 11: Transitive and Intransitive Verbs


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